Lista światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO Zjednoczone Królestwo Wielkiej Brytanii i Irlandii Północnej

World Heritage List UNESCO - Great Britain


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Tekst tłumaczony maszynowo. Dokładamy wszelkich starań, żeby jak najszybciej poprawić tłumaczenia maszynowe. W międzyczasie udostępniamy treści w formie roboczej.

374 Zamki i mury miejskie króla Edwarda w Gwynedd — 1986

Zamki Beaumaris i Harlech (w dużej mierze dzieło największego inżyniera wojskowego tamtych czasów, Jakuba św. Jerzego) i ufortyfikowanych kompleksów Caernarfon i Conwy znajdują się w dawnym księstwie Gwynedd, w północnej Walii. Te niezwykle dobrze zachowane zabytki są przykładami prac kolonizacyjnych i obronnych prowadzonych przez cały okres panowania Edwarda I (1272—1307) oraz architektury wojskowej tamtych czasów.

370 Zamek i katedra w Durham — 1986

Katedra w Durham została zbudowana pod koniec XI i na początku XII wieku, aby pomieściły relikwie św. Cuthberta (ewangelizatora Northumbrii) i Czcigodnego Bede. To świadczy o znaczeniu wczesnej wspólnoty klasztornej benedyktynów i jest największym i najlepszym przykładem architektury normańskiej w Anglii. Innowacyjna śmiałość sklepienia zapowiadała gotycką architekturę. Za katedrą stoi zamek, starożytna normańska twierdza, która była rezydencją książąt biskupów Durham.

369 Grobla Olbrzyma i Wybrzeże Causeway — 1986

Grobla Olbrzyma leży u podnóża bazaltowych klifów wzdłuż wybrzeża morskiego na skraju płaskowyżu Antrim w Irlandii Północnej. To składa się z około 40 000 masywnych czarnych bazaltowych kolumn wystających z morza. Dramatyczny widok zainspirował legendy gigantów przebiegających przez morze do Szkocji. Badania geologiczne tych formacji w ciągu ostatnich 300 lat w znacznym stopniu przyczyniły się do rozwoju nauk o Ziemi i pokazują, że ten uderzający krajobraz był spowodowany aktywnością wulkaniczną podczas trzeciorzędu, około 50—60 milionów lat temu.

371 Wąwóz Ironbridge — 1986

Ironbridge jest znany na całym świecie jako symbol rewolucji przemysłowej.
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Zawiera wszystkie elementy postępu, które przyczyniły się do szybkiego rozwoju tego regionu przemysłowego w XVIII wieku, od samych kopalń po linie kolejowe. W pobliżu, wielki piec Coalbrookdale, zbudowany w 1708 roku, jest przypomnieniem odkrycia koksu. Most na Ironbridge, pierwszy na świecie most zbudowany z żelaza, miał znaczący wpływ na rozwój technologii i architektury.

387 St Kilda — 1986

Ten wulkaniczny archipelag, ze spektakularnymi krajobrazami, położony jest u wybrzeży Hebrydów i obejmuje wyspy Hirta, Dun, Soay i Boreray. Ma jedne z najwyższych klifów w Europie, które mają duże kolonie rzadkich i zagrożonych gatunków ptaków, zwłaszcza obrzęki i żłony. Archipelag, niezamieszkany od 1930 roku, jest dowodem ponad 2000 lat okupacji ludzkiej w ekstremalnych warunkach panujących w Hebrydach. Ludzkie pozostałości obejmują budowane konstrukcje i systemy polowe, kleity i tradycyjne góralskie kamienne domy. Obejmują one słabe szczątki gospodarki egzystencjalnej opartej na produktach ptaków, rolnictwie i hodowli owiec.

373 Stonehenge, Avebury i powiązane strony — 1986

Stonehenge i Avebury, w Wiltshire, należą do najbardziej znanych grup megalitów na świecie. Oba sanktuaria składają się z kręgów menhirów ułożonych w wzór, którego znaczenie astronomiczne jest wciąż badane. Te święte miejsca i pobliskie miejsca neolitu są niezrównanym świadectwem czasów prehistorycznych.

372 Park Królewski Studley wraz z Ruinami Fontann Abbey — 1986

W XVIII wieku wokół ruin opactwa fontann cystersów w Yorkshire powstał zaprojektowany krajobraz o wyjątkowym pięknie. Spektakularne ruiny XII wieku opactwa i młyna wodnego, Jakobeańska dwór Fountains Hall, wiktoriański arcydzieło Kościoła Mariackiego i jeden z najwspanialszych gruzińskich ogrodów wodnych, jakie kiedykolwiek stworzono, czynią ten krajobraz o wyjątkowych zasługach.
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425 Pałac Blenheim — 1987

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standsin a romantic park created by the famous landscape gardener ‘Capability’ Brown. It was presented by the English nation to John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough, in recognition of his victory in 1704 over French and Bavarian troops. Built between 1705 and 1722 and characterized by an eclectic style and a return to national roots, it is a perfect example of an 18th-century princely dwelling.

428 City of Bath – 1987

Founded by the Romans as a thermal spa, Bath became an important centre of the wool industry in the Middle Ages. In the 18th century, under George III, it developed into an elegant town with neoclassical Palladian buildings, which blend harmoniously with the Roman baths.

430 Frontiers of the Roman Empire – 1987

The ‘Roman Limes’ represents the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. It stretched over 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, and from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast. The remains of the Limes today consist of vestiges of built walls, ditches, forts, fortresses, watchtowers and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed and a few destroyed. The two sections of the Limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east.
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The 118-km-long Hadrian’s Wall (UK) was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60-km long fortification in Scotland was started by Emperor Antonius Pius in 142 AD as a defense against the “barbarians” of the north. It constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes.

426 Palace of Westminster and Westminster Abbey including Saint Margaret’s Church – 1987

Westminster Palace, rebuilt from the year 1840 on the site of important medieval remains, is a fine example of neo-Gothic architecture. The site – which also comprises the small medieval Church of Saint Margaret, built in Perpendicular Gothic style, and Westminster Abbey, where all the sovereigns since the 11th century have been crowned – is of great historic and symbolic significance.

496 Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine’s Abbey, and St Martin’s Church – 1988

Canterbury, in Kent, has been the seat of the spiritual head of the Church of England for nearly five centuries. Canterbury’s other important monuments are the modest Church of St Martin, the oldest church in England; the ruins of the Abbey of St Augustine, a reminder of the saint’s evangelizing role in the Heptarchy from 597; and Christ Church Cathedral, a breathtaking mixture of Romanesque and Perpendicular Gothic, where Archbishop Thomas Becket was murdered in 1170.

487 Henderson Island – 1988

, which lies in the eastern South Pacific, is one of the few atolls in the world whose ecology has been practically untouched by a human presence.
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Its isolated location provides the ideal context for studying the dynamics of insular evolution and natural selection. It is particularly notable for the 10 plants and four land birds that are endemic to the island.

488 Tower of London – 1988

The massive White Tower is a typical example of Norman military architecture, whose influence was felt throughout the kingdom. It was built on the Thames by William the Conqueror to protect London and assert his power. The – an imposing fortress with many layers of history, which has become one of the symbols of royalty – was built around the White Tower.

740 Gough and Inaccessible Islands – 1995

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thesouth Atlantic, is one of the least-disrupted island and marine ecosystems in the cool temperate zone. The spectacular cliffs of , towering above the ocean, are free of introduced mammals and home to one of the world’s largest colonies of sea birds. Gough Island is home to two endemic species of land birds, the gallinule and the Gough rowettie, as well as to 12 endemic species of plants, while Inaccessible Island boasts two birds, eight plants and at least 10 invertebrates endemic to the island.

728 Old and New Towns of Edinburgh – 1995

Edinburgh has been the Scottish capital since the 15th century. It has two distinct areas: the Old Town, dominated by a medieval fortress; and the neoclassical New Town, whose development from the 18th century onwards had a far-reaching influence on European urban planning.
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The harmonious juxtaposition of these two contrasting historic areas, each with many important buildings, is what gives the city its unique character.

795 Maritime Greenwich – 1997

The ensemble of buildings at Greenwich, an outlying district of London, and the park in which they are set, symbolize English artistic and scientific endeavour in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Queen’s House (by Inigo Jones) was the first Palladian building in England, while the complex that was until recently the Royal Naval College was designed by Christopher Wren. The park, laid out on the basis of an original design by André Le Nôtre, contains the Old Royal Observatory, the work of Wren and the scientist Robert Hooke.

514 Heart of Neolithic Orkney – 1999

The group of Neolithic monuments on Orkney consists of a large chambered tomb (Maes Howe), two ceremonial stone circles (the Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar) and a settlement (Skara Brae), together with a number of unexcavated burial, ceremonial and settlement sites. The group constitutes a major prehistoric cultural landscape which gives a graphic depiction of life in this remote archipelago in the far north of Scotland some 5,000 years ago.

984 Blaenavon Industrial Landscape – 2000

The area around Blaenavon is evidence of the pre-eminence of South Wales as the world’s major producer of iron and coal in the 19th century. All the necessary elements can still be seen – coal and ore mines, quarries, a primitive railway system, furnaces, workers’ homes, and the social infrastructure of their community.

983 Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda – 2000

The Town of St George, founded in 1612, is an outstanding example of the earliest English urban settlement in the New World.
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Its associated fortifications graphically illustrate the development of English military engineering from the 17th to the 20th century, being adapted to take account of the development of artillery over this period.

1030 Derwent Valley Mills – 2001

The Derwent Valley in central England contains a series of 18th- and 19th- century cotton mills and an industrial landscape of high historical and technological interest. The modern factory owes its origins to the mills at Cromford, where Richard Arkwright’s inventions were first put into industrial-scale production. The workers’ housing associated with this and the other mills remains intact and illustrate the socio-economic development of the area.

1029 Dorset and East Devon Coast – 2001

The cliff exposures along the Dorset and East Devon coast provide an almost continuous sequence of rock formations spanning the Mesozoic Era, or some 185 million years of the earth’s history. The area’s important fossil sites and classic coastal geomorphologic features have contributed to the study of earth sciences for over 300 years.

429 New Lanark – 2001

is a small 18th- century village set in a sublime Scottish landscape where Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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thephilanthropist and Utopian idealist Robert Owen moulded a model industrial community in the early 19th century. The imposing cotton mill buildings, the spacious and well-designed workers’ housing, and the dignified educational institute and school still testify to Owen’s humanism.
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1028 Saltaire – 2001

, West Yorkshire, is a complete and well-preserved industrial village of the second half of the 19th century. Its textile mills, public buildings and workers’ housing are built in a harmonious style of high architectural standards and the urban plan survives intact, giving a vivid impression of Victorian philanthropic paternalism.

1084 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – 2003

This historic landscape garden features elements that illustrate significant periods of the art of gardens from the 18th to the 20th centuries. The gardens house botanic collections (conserved plants, living plants and documents) that have been considerably enriched through the centuries. Since their creation in 1759, the gardens have made a significant and uninterrupted contribution to the study of plant diversity and economic botany.

1150 Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City – 2004

Six areas in the historic centre and docklands of the maritime mercantile City of Liverpool bear witness to the development of one of the world’s major trading centres in the 18th and 19th centuries. Liverpool played an important role in the growth of the British Empire and became the major port for the mass movement of people, e.g. slaves and emigrants from northern Europe to America. Liverpool was a pioneer in the development of modern dock technology, transport systems and port management. The listed sites feature a great number of significant commercial, civic and public buildings, including St George’s Plateau.

1215 Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape – 2006

Much of the landscape of Cornwall and West Devon was transformed in the 18th and early 19th centuries as a result of the rapid growth of pioneering copper and tin mining.
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Its deep underground mines, engine houses, foundries, new towns, smallholdings, ports and harbours, and their ancillary industries together reflect prolific innovation which, in the early 19th century, enabled the region to produce two-thirds of the world’s supply of copper. The substantial remains are a testimony to the contribution Cornwall and West Devon made to the Industrial Revolution in the rest of Britain and to the fundamental influence the area had on the mining world at large. Cornish technology embodied in engines, engine houses and mining equipment was exported around the world. Cornwall and West Devon were the heartland from which mining technology rapidly spread.

1303 Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal – 2009

Situated in north-eastern Wales, the 18 kilometre long is a feat of civil engineering of the Industrial Revolution, completed in the early years of the 19th century. Covering a difficult geographical setting, the building of the canal required substantial, bold civil engineering solutions, especially as it was built without using locks. The aqueduct is a pioneering masterpiece of engineering and monumental metal architecture, conceived by the celebrated civil engineer Thomas Telford. The use of both cast and wrought iron in the aqueduct enabled the construction of arches that were light and d strong, producing an overall effect that is both monumental and elegant. The property is inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, and as a remarkable synthesis of expertise already acquired in Europe. It is also recognized as an innovative ensemble that inspired many projects all over the world.

1485 The Forth Bridge – 2015

This railway bridge, crossing the Forth estuary in Scotland, had the world’s longest spans (541 m) when it opened in 1890.
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It remains one of the greatest Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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cantilevertrussed bridges and continues to carry passengers and freight. Its distinctive industrial aesthetic is the result of a forthright and unadorned display of its structural components. Innovative in style, materials and scale, the Forth Bridge marks an important milestone in bridge design and construction during the period when railways came to dominate long-distance land travel.

1500 Gorham’s Cave Complex – 2016

The steep limestone cliffs on the eastern side of the Rock of Gibraltar contain four caves with archaeological and paleontological deposits that provide evidence of Neanderthal occupation over a span of more than 100,000 years. This exceptional testimony to the cultural traditions of the Neanderthals is seen notably in evidence of the hunting of birds and marine animals for food, the use of feathers for ornamentation and the presence of abstract rock engravings. Scientific research on these sites has already contributed substantially to debates about Neanderthal and human evolution.

422 The English Lake District – 2017

Located in northwest England, the English Lake District is a mountainous area, whose valleys have been modelled by glaciers in the Ice Age and subsequently shaped by an agro-pastoral land-use system characterized by fields enclosed by walls. The combined work of nature and human activity has produced a harmonious landscape in which the mountains are mirrored in the lakes.
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Grand houses, gardens and parks have been purposely created to enhance the landscape’s beauty. This landscape was greatly appreciated from the 18thcentury onwards by the Picturesque and later Romantic movements, which celebrated it in paintings, drawings and words. It also inspired an awareness of the importance of beautiful landscapes and triggered early efforts to preserve them.

1594 Jodrell Bank Observatory – 2019

Located in a rural area of northwest England, free from radio interference, Jodrell Bank is one of the world’s leading radio astronomy observatories. At the beginning of its use, in 1945, the property housed research on cosmic rays detected by radar echoes. This observatory, which is still in operation, includes several radio telescopes and working buildings, including engineering sheds and the Control Building. Jodrell Bank has had substantial scientific impact in fields such as the study of meteors and the moon, the discovery of quasars, quantum optics, and the tracking of spacecraft. This exceptional technological ensemble illustrates the transition from traditional optical astronomy to radio astronomy (1940s to 1960s), which led to radical changes in the understanding of the universe.

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