Lista światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO Iran (Islamska Republika)



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Tekst tłumaczony maszynowo. Dokładamy wszelkich starań, żeby jak najszybciej poprawić tłumaczenia maszynowe. W międzyczasie udostępniamy treści w formie roboczej.

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115 Meidan Emam, Esfahan – 1979

Built by Shah Abbas I the Great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for the Royal Mosque, the Mosque of Sheykh Lotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qaysariyyeh and the 15th-century Timurid palace. They are an impressive testimony to the level of social and cultural life in Persia during the Safavid era.

114 Persepolis – 1979

Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site.

113 Tchogha Zanbil – 1979

The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at . Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site.

1077 Takht-e Soleyman – 2003

The archaeological site of , in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian period (6th and 7th centuries) dedicated to Anahita.
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The site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and the general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.

1208 Bam and its Cultural Landscape – 2004

Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of the Iranian high plateau. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC). Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. The existence of life in the oasis was based on the underground irrigation canals, the qanāts, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh ).

1106 Pasargadae – 2004

was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. Particularly noteworthy vestiges in the 160-ha site include: the Mausoleum of Cyrus II; Tall-e Takht, a fortified terrace; and a royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens. was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.
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1188 Soltaniyeh – 2005

The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302–12 in the city of , the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan, is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is the earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum’s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U. Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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Popehave described the building as ‘anticipating the Taj Mahal’.

1222 Bisotun – 2006

is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 521 BC. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty, and treading on the chest of a figure who lies on his back before him. According to legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the Median Magus and pretender to the throne whose assassination led to Darius’s rise to power.
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Below and around the bas-reliefs, there are ca. 1,200 lines of inscriptions telling the story of the battles Darius waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take apart the Empire founded by Cyrus. The inscription is written in three languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions. This is followed by a Babylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of the inscription is particularly important, as it is here that Darius introduced for the first time the Old Persian version of his res gestae (things done). This is the only known monumental text of the Achaemenids to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darius I. It also bears witness to the interchange of influences in the development of monumental art and writing in the region of the Persian Empire. There are also remains from the Median period (8th to 7th centuries B.C.) as well as from the Achaemenid (6th to 4th centuries B.C.) and post-Achaemenid periods.

1262 Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran – 2008

The Armenian Monastic Ensemblesof Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensembles of the Armenian Christian faith: St Thaddeus and St Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor. These edifices – the oldest of which, St Thaddeus, dates back to the 7th century – are examples of outstanding universal value of the Armenian architectural and decorative traditions. They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, Orthodox and Persian. Situated on the south-eastern fringe of the main zone of the Armenian cultural space, the monasteries constituted a major centre for the dissemination of that culture in the region. They are the last regional remains of this culture that are still in a satisfactory state of integrity and authenticity.
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Furthermore, as places of pilgrimage, the monastic ensembles are living witnesses of Armenian religious traditions through the centuries.

1315 Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System – 2009

Shushtar, Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Kârun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mianâb (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salâsel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.

1345 Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil – 2010

Built between the Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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beginningof the 16th century and the end of the 18th century, this place of spiritual retreat in the Sufi tradition uses Iranian traditional architectural forms to maximize use of available space to accommodate a variety of functions (including a library, a mosque, a school, mausolea, a cistern, a hospital, kitchens, a bakery, and some offices).
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It incorporates a route to reach the shrine of the Sheikh divided into seven segments, which mirror the seven stages of Sufi mysticism, separated by eight gates, which represent the eight attitudes of Sufism. The ensemble includes well-preserved and richly ornamented facades and interiors, with a remarkable collection of antique artefacts. It constitutes a rare ensemble of elements of medieval Islamic architecture.

1346 Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex – 2010

Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions. Tabriz and its Bazaar were already prosperous and famous in the 13th century, when the town, in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as capital in the 16th century, but remained important as a commercial hub until the end of the 18th century, with the expansion of Ottoman power. It is one of the most complete examples of the traditional commercial and cultural system of Iran.

1372 The Persian Garden – 2011

The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems.
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They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.

1398 Gonbad-e Qābus – 2012

The 53m high tomb built in ad 1006 for Qābus Ibn Voshmgir, Ziyarid ruler and literati, near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan in north-east Iran, bears testimony to the cultural exchange between Central Asian nomads and the ancient civilization of Iran. The tower is the only remaining evidence of Jorjan, a former centre of arts and science that was destroyed during the Mongols’ invasion in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is an outstanding and technologically innovative example of Islamic architecture that influenced sacral building in Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia. Built of unglazed fired bricks, the monument’s intricate geometric forms constitute a tapering cylinder with a diameter of 17–15.5m, topped by a conical brick roof. It illustrates the development of mathematics and science in the Muslim world at the turn of the first millennium AD.

1397 Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan – 2012

Located in the historic centre of Isfahan, the Masjed-e Jāmé (‘Friday mosque’) can be seen as a stunning illustration of the evolution of mosque architecture over twelve centuries, starting in ad841. It is the oldest preserved edifice of its type in Iran and a prototype for later mosque designs throughout Central Asia. The complex, covering more than 20,000m2, is also the first Islamic building that adapted the four-courtyard layout of Sassanid palaces to Islamic religious architecture. Its double-shelled ribbed domes represent an architectural innovation that inspired builders throughout the region. Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https:
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Thesite also features remarkable decorative details representative of stylistic developments over more than a thousand years of Islamic art.

1422 Golestan Palace – 2013

The lavish is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779 and made Teheran the capital of the country. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features and rich ornaments date from the 19th century. It became a centre of Qajari arts and architecture of which it is an outstanding example and has remained a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and crafts and elements of 18th century architecture and technology.

1456 Shahr-i Sokhta – 2014

, meaning ‘Burnt City’, is located at the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. The remains of the mudbrick city represent the emergence of the first complex societies in eastern Iran. Founded around 3200BC, it was populated during four main periods up to 1800BC, during which time there developed several distinct areas within the city: those where monuments were built, and separate quarters for housing, burial and manufacture. Diversions in water courses and climate change led to the eventual abandonment of the city in the early second millennium.
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The structures, burial grounds and large number of significant artefacts unearthed there, and their well-preserved state due to the dry desert climate, make this site a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium BC.

1423 Cultural Landscape of Maymand – 2015

Maymand is a self-contained,semi-arid area at the end of a valley at the southern extremity of Iran’s central mountains.The villagers are semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists.They raise their animals on mountain pastures, living in temporary settlements in spring andautumn.During the winter monthsthey live lower down the valleyin cave dwellings carved out of the soft rock (kamar),an unusual form of housing in a dry, desert environment. This cultural landscape is an example of a system that appears to have been morewidespreadin the past and involves the movement of people rather than animals.

1455 Susa – 2015

Located in the south-west of Iran, in the lower Zagros Mountains, the property encompasses a group of archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, as well as Ardeshir’s palace, on the opposite bank of the river. The excavated architectural monuments include administrative, residential and palatial structures. contains several layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5th millennium BCE until the 13th century CE. The site bears exceptional testimony to the Elamite, Persian and Parthian cultural traditions, which have largely disappeared.

1505 Lut Desert – 2016

The , or Dasht-e-Lut, is located in the south-east of the country. Between June and October, this arid subtropical area is swept by strong winds, which transport sediment and cause aeolian erosion on a colossal scale.
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Consequently, the site presents some of the most spectacular examples ofaeolian yardanglandforms (massive corrugated ridges). It also contains extensive stony deserts and dune fields. The property represents an exceptional example of ongoing geological processes.

1506 The Persian Qanat – 2016

Throughout the arid regions of Iran, agricultural and permanent settlements are supported by the ancient qanat system wytykanie wodonośnych wodonośnych na głowach dolin i przewodzenie wody grawitacyjnie wzdłuż podziemnych tuneli, często na przestrzeni wielu kilometrów. W jedenastu katanatów reprezentujących ten system znajdują się miejsca wypoczynkowe dla pracowników, zbiorniki wodne i młyny wodne. Tradycyjny system zarządzania komunalnego pozwala na sprawiedliwy i zrównoważony podział i dystrybucję wody. Katany stanowią wyjątkowe świadectwo tradycji kulturowych i cywilizacji na terenach pustynnych o suchym klimacie.

1544 Historyczne miasto Yazd — 2017

Miasto Yazd znajduje się w środku irańskiego płaskowyżu, 270 km na południowy wschód od Isfahan, w pobliżu Spice i Jedwabnych Dróg. Jest żywym świadectwem wykorzystania ograniczonych zasobów do przetrwania na pustyni. Woda jest dostarczana do miasta poprzez system qanat opracowany do czerpania wody podziemnej. Ziemna architektura Yazd uniknęła modernizacji, która zniszczyła wiele tradycyjnych glinianych miast, zachowując swoje tradycyjne dzielnice, system qanat, tradycyjne domy, bazary, hammy, meczety, synagogi, świątynie Zoroastrii i zabytkowy ogród Dolat-abad.

1568 Sasanid Pejzaż Archeologiczny regionu Fars — 2018

Osiem stanowisk archeologicznych położonych w trzech obszarach geograficznych w południowo-wschodniej części prowincji Fars:
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Firuzabad, Bishapur i Sarvestan. Wzorce obronne, pałace i plany miasta sięgają najwcześniejszych i najnowocześniejszych czasów Imperium Sasaniańskiego, które rozciągało się w całym regionie od 224 do 658 roku. Wśród tych miejsc jest stolica zbudowana przez założyciela dynastii, Ardashir Papakan, a także miasto i struktury architektoniczne jego następcy, Shapur I. Krajobraz archeologiczny odzwierciedla zoptymalizowane wykorzystanie naturalnej topografii i świadczy o wpływie Achaemenidu i Parthian tradycje kulturowe i sztuki rzymskiej, które miały znaczący wpływ na architekturę epoki islamskiej.

1584 Lasy Hyrcanian — 2019

Lasy hyrcanian tworzą unikalny leśny masyw, który rozciąga się 850 km wzdłuż południowego wybrzeża Morza Kaspijskiego. Historia tych lasów liściastych sięga 25 do 50 milionów lat, kiedy to obejmowały większość tego regionu Północnego Umiarkowanego. Te starożytne obszary leśne wycofały się podczas czwartorzędowych zlodowacenia, a następnie ponownie rozszerzyły się, gdy klimat stał się łagodniejszy. Ich florystyczna różnorodność biologiczna jest godna uwagi: 44% roślin naczyniowych znanych w Iranie znajduje się w regionie hyrcanian, który obejmuje tylko 7% kraju. Dotychczas odnotowano 180 gatunków ptaków typowych dla lasów umiarkowanych o liściach szerokolistnych i 58 gatunków ssaków, w tym kultowy lampart perski (Panthera pardus tulliana).

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