Lista światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO Indie



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Tekst tłumaczony maszynowo. Dokładamy wszelkich starań, żeby jak najszybciej poprawić tłumaczenia maszynowe. W międzyczasie udostępniamy treści w formie roboczej.

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Spis treści

251 Agra Fort – 1983

Near the gardens of the Taj Mahal stands the important 16th-century Mughal monument known as the Red Fort of Agra. This powerful fortress of red sandstone encompasses, within its 2.5-km-long enclosure walls, the imperial city of the Mughal rulers. It comprises many fairy-tale palaces, such as the Jahangir Palace and the Khas Mahal, built by Shah Jahan; audience halls, such as the Diwan-i-Khas; and two very beautiful mosques.

242 Ajanta Caves – 1983

The first Buddhist cave monuments at Ajanta date from the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. During the Gupta period (5th and 6th centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves were added to the original group. The paintings and sculptures of Ajanta, considered masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, have had a considerable artistic influence.

243 Ellora Caves – 1983

These 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff, not far from Aurangabad, in Maharashtra. Ellora, with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000, brings the civilization of ancient India to life. Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but, with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India.
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252 Taj Mahal – 1983

An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, the is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.

249 Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram – 1984

This group of sanctuaries, founded by the Pallava kings, was carved out of rock along the Coromandel coast in the 7th and 8th centuries. It is known especially for its rathas (temples in the form of chariots), mandapas (cave sanctuaries), giant open-air reliefs such as the famous ‘Descent of the Ganges’, and the temple of Rivage, with thousands of sculptures to the glory of Shiva.

246 Sun Temple, Konârak – 1984

On the shores of the Bay of Bengal, bathed in the rays of the rising sun, the temple at Konarak is a monumental representation of the sun god Surya’s chariot; its 24 wheels are decorated with symbolic designs and it is led by a team of six horses. Built in the 13th century, it is one of India’s most famous Brahman sanctuaries.

337 Kaziranga National Park – 1985

In the heart of Assam, this park is one of the last areas in eastern India undisturbed by a human presence. It is inhabited by the world’s largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses, as well as many mammals, including tigers, elephants, panthers and bears, and thousands of birds.

340 Keoladeo National Park – 1985

This former duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is one of the major wintering areas for large numbers of aquatic birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. Some 364 species of birds, including the rare Siberian crane, have been recorded in the park.
Nie ma takiej reklamy 🙁

338 Manas Wildlife Sanctuary – 1985

On a gentle slope in the foothills of the Himalayas, where wooded hills give way to alluvial grasslands and tropical forests, the Manas sanctuary is home to a great variety of wildlife, including many endangered species, such as the tiger, pygmy hog, Indian rhinoceros and Indian elephant.

234 Churches and Convents of Goa – 1986

The churches and convents of Goa, the former capital of the Portuguese Indies – particularly the Church of Bom Jesus, which contains the tomb of St Francis-Xavier – illustrate the evangelization of Asia. These monuments were influential in spreading forms of Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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Manueline,Mannerist and Baroque art in all the countries of Asia where missions were established.

255 Fatehpur Sikri – 1986

Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid.

241 Group of Monuments at Hampi – 1986

The austere, grandiose site of Hampi was the last capital of the last great Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar. Its fabulously rich princes built Dravidian temples and palaces which won the admiration of travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries.
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Conquered by the Deccan Muslim confederacy in 1565, the city was pillaged over a period of six months before being abandoned.

240 Khajuraho Group of Monuments – 1986

The temples at Khajuraho were built during the Chandella dynasty, which reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. Only about 20 temples remain; they fall into three distinct groups and belong to two different religions – Hinduism and Jainism. They strike a perfect balance between architecture and sculpture. The Temple of Kandariya is decorated with a profusion of sculptures that are among the greatest masterpieces of Indian art.

244 Elephanta Caves – 1987

The ‘City of Caves’, on an island in the Sea of Oman close to Bombay, contains a collection of rock art linked to the cult of Shiva. Here, Indian art has found one of its most perfect expressions, particularly the huge high reliefs in the main cave.

250 Great Living Chola Temples – 1987

The were built by kings of the Chola Empire, which stretched over all of south India and the neighbouring islands. The site includes three great 11th- and 12th-century Temples: the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram, built by Rajendra I, was completed in 1035. Its 53-m vimana (sanctum tower) has recessed corners and a graceful upward curving movement, contrasting with the straight and severe tower at Thanjavur. The Airavatesvara temple complex, built by Rajaraja II, at Darasuram features a 24-m vimana and a stone image of Shiva. The temples testify to the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting.

239 Group of Monuments at Pattadakal – 1987

Pattadakal, in Karnataka, represents the high point of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India.
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An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there. One masterpiece from the group stands out – the Temple of Virupaksha, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband’s victory over the kings from the South.

452 Sundarbans National Park – 1987

The Sundarbans covers 10,000 km2 of land and water (more than half of it in India, the rest in Bangladesh) in the Ganges delta. It contains the world’s largest area of mangrove forests. A number of rare or endangered species live in the park, including tigers, aquatic mammals, birds and reptiles.

335 Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks – 1988

Nestled high in West Himalaya, India’s Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park.Razem obejmują one unikalną strefę przejściową między pasmami górskimi Zanskar i Wielkiej Himalaji, chwaloną przez alpinistów i botaników od ponad wieku, a w mitologii hinduskiej znacznie dłużej.

524 Pomniki buddyjskie w Sanchi — 1989

Na wzgórzu z widokiem na równinę i około 40 km od Bhopalu, miejsce Sanchi składa się z grupy buddyjskich zabytków (monolityczne filary, pałace, świątynie i klasztory) wszystko w różnych stanach ochrony, z których większość pochodzi z 2 i 1 wieku p.n.e. Jest to najstarsze buddyjskie sanktuarium w istnienie i był głównym ośrodkiem buddyjskim w Indiach aż do XII wieku n.
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e.

232 Grobowiec Humajuna, Delhi — 1993

Ten grób, zbudowany w 1570 roku, ma szczególne znaczenie kulturowe, ponieważ był to pierwszy grobowiec ogrodowy na subkontynencie indyjskim. Zainspirowała kilka ważnych innowacji architektonicznych, których kulminacją jest budowa Taj Mahal.

233 Minar Qutb i jego pomniki, Delhi — 1993

Zbudowana na początku XIII wieku, kilka kilometrów na południe od Delhi, czerwona wieża z piaskowca Qutb Minar ma 72,5 m wysokości, zwężająca się od 2,75 m na szczycie do 14,32 m u podstawy oraz przemiennie kątowe i zaokrąglone pofalki. Otaczający obszar archeologiczny obejmuje budynki grobowe, w szczególności wspaniałą bramę Alai-Darwaza, arcydzieło sztuki indomuzułmańskiej (zbudowane w 1311 r.) oraz dwa meczety, w tym Quwwatu’l-islam, najstarszy w północnych Indiach, zbudowane z materiałów ponownie wykorzystanych z około 20 świątyń Brahmana.

944 Koleje Górskie Indii — 1999

Ta strona obejmuje trzy koleje. Kolejka Darjeeling Himalayan Railway była pierwszym, i nadal jest najwybitniejszym przykładem kolei pasażerskiej wzgórza. Otwarty w 1881 roku, jego projekt stosuje odważne i pomysłowe rozwiązania inżynieryjne do problemu ustanowienia skutecznego połączenia kolejowego w górzystym terenie o wielkim pięknie. Budowa kolejki górskiej Nilgiri, 46-kilometrowej jednotorowej kolei metrowotorowej w stanie Tamil Nadu została po raz pierwszy zaproponowana w 1854 roku, ale ze względu na trudność lokalizacji górskiej prace rozpoczęły się dopiero w 1891 roku i zakończono w 1908 roku. Ta kolej, skalująca wysokość 326 m do 2,203 m, reprezentowała najnowszą technologię tamtych czasów. Kolej Kalka Shimla, 96 km długości, jednotorowe połączenie kolejowe robocze zbudowane w połowie XIX wieku w celu świadczenia usług dla góralskiego miasta Shimla, jest symbolem technicznych i materialnych wysiłków na rzecz rozdzielenia populacji górskich przez kolej.
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Wszystkie trzy linie kolejowe są nadal w pełni sprawne.

1056 Mahabodhi Temple Complex w Bodh Gaya — 2002

Kompleks świątyni Mahabodhi jest jednym z czterech świętych miejsc związanych z życiem Pana Buddy, a w szczególności z osiągnięciem Oświecenia. Pierwsza świątynia została zbudowana przez cesarza Asoka w III wieku przed naszą erą, a obecna świątynia pochodzi z V lub 6 wieku. Jest to jedna z najwcześniejszych świątyń buddyjskich zbudowanych w całości z cegły, wciąż stojących w Indiach, z późnego okresu Gupta.

925 Schroniska skalne Bhimbetka — 2003

Są u podnóża gór Vindhyan na południowym skraju centralnego płaskowyżu indyjskiego. W masywnych wyrzutniach piaskowca, nad stosunkowo gęstym lasem, znajduje się pięć skupisk naturalnych schronisk skalnych, prezentujących obrazy, które pojawiają się do tej pory od okresu mezolitu aż do okresu historycznego. Tradycje kulturowe mieszkańców dwudziestu jeden wiosek przylegających do terenu mają silne podobieństwo do tych reprezentowanych w malowidłach skalnych.

1101 Park Archeologiczny Champaner-Pavagadh — 2004

Koncentracja w dużej mierze niezidentyfikowanych archeologicznych, historycznych i żywych obiektów dziedzictwa kulturowego, które znajdują się w imponującym krajobrazie, który obejmuje prehistoryczne (chalcolithic) miejsca, twierdzę wzgórza wczesnej hinduskiej stolicy i pozostałościXVI wiekustolica stanu Gujarat. Na terenie znajdują się również m.in. pozostałości, fortyfikacje, pałace, budynki religijne, dzielnice mieszkaniowe, budowle rolnicze i instalacje wodne, od VIII do XIV wieku. Świątynia Kalikamata na szczycie wzgórza Pavagadh jest uważana za ważną świątynię, przyciągającą dużą liczbę pielgrzymów przez cały rok.
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Witryna jest jedynym kompletnym i niezmienionym islamskim miastem przed-mogołym.

945 Terminus Chhatrapati Shivaji (dawniej Victoria Terminus) — 2004

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, dawniej znany jako Victoria Terminus Station, w Bombaju, jest wybitnym przykładem wiktoriańskiej architektury gotyckiej w Indiach, połączonej z motywami wywodzącymi się z tradycyjnej architektury indyjskiej. Budynek, zaprojektowany przez brytyjskiego architekta F. W. Stevensa, stał się symbolem Bombaju jako „Gothic City’ i głównym międzynarodowym portem handlowym w Indiach. Terminal został zbudowany przez ponad 10 lat, począwszy od 1878 roku, zgodnie z wysokimi wiktoriańskimi wzorami gotyckimi opartymi na późnośredniowiecznych modelach włoskich. Niepowtarzalna kamienna kopuła, wieżyczki, spiczaste łuki i ekscentryczny plan terenu znajdują się w pobliżu tradycyjnej indyjskiej architektury pałacowej. Jest to wybitny przykład spotkania dwóch kultur, ponieważ brytyjscy architekci współpracowali z indyjskimi rzemieślnikami, aby uwzględnić indyjskie tradycje architektoniczne i idiomy, tworząc w ten sposób nowy styl unikalny dla Bombaju.

231 Red Fort Complex — 2007

Został zbudowany jako pałacowy fort Shahjahanabad — nowa stolica piątego cesarza Mogołów Indii, Shah Jahan. Nazwany od masywnych otaczających ścian z czerwonego piaskowca, przylega do starszego fortu, Salimgarh, zbudowany przez Islam Shah Suri w 1546, z którym tworzy. Prywatne apartamenty składają się z rzędu pawilonów połączonych ciągłym kanałem wodnym, znanym jako Nahr-i-Behisht (Strumień Raju). Czerwony Fort jest uważany za reprezentujący zenit twórczości Mogołów, który pod szachem Jahana został doprowadzony do nowego poziomu wyrafinowania.
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Planowanie pałacu opiera się na prototypach islamskich, ale każdy pawilon ujawnia elementy architektoniczne typowe dla budynku Mogołów, odzwierciedlające fuzję perskich, Timurid i hinduskich tradycji Innowacyjny styl planowania i architektoniczny Red Fort, w tym projekt ogrodu, silnie wpłynął później budynków i ogrodów w Radżastanie, Delhi, Agra i dalej.

1338 The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur — 2010

Jantar Mantar, w Jaipur, jest astronomicznym miejscem obserwacji zbudowanym na początku XVIII wieku. Zawiera zestaw około 20 głównych instrumentów stałych. Są to monumentalne przykłady w murze znanych instrumentów, ale które w wielu przypadkach mają specyficzne cechy własne. Zaprojektowane do obserwacji pozycji astronomicznych gołym okiem, ucieleśniają kilka innowacji architektonicznych i instrumentalnych. Jest to najbardziej znaczący, najbardziej kompleksowy i najlepiej zachowany z historycznych obserwatoriów Indii. Jest to wyraz umiejętności astronomicznych i kosmologicznych koncepcji dworu uczonego księcia pod koniec okresu Mogołów.

1342 Ghaty Zachodnie — 2012

Starszy niż góry Himalaya, łańcuch górski reprezentuje cechy geomorficzne o ogromnym znaczeniu z unikalnymi procesami biofizycznymi i ekologicznymi. Wysokie ekosystemy lasów Montane wpływają na indyjskie monsunowe wzorce pogody. Umiarkowanie tropikalnego klimatu regionu, strona przedstawia jeden z najlepszych przykładów systemu monsunowego na planecie. Ma również wyjątkowo wysoki poziom różnorodności biologicznej i endemizmu i jest uznawany za jeden z ośmiu „najgorętszych hotspotów” różnorodności biologicznej na świecie. Lasy terenu obejmują jedne z najlepszych przedstawicieli nierównikowych lasów tropikalnych wiecznie zielonych wszędzie i są domem dla co najmniej 325 zagrożonych globalnie flory, fauny, ptaka, płazów, gadówError executing “TranslateText” on “https:
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andfish species.

247 Hill Forts of Rajasthan – 2013

The serial site, situated in the state of Rajastahan, includes six majestic forts in Chittorgarh; Kumbhalgarh; Sawai Madhopur; Jhalawar; Jaipur, and Jaisalmer. The ecclectic architecture of the forts, some up to 20 kilometres in circumference, bears testimony to the power of the Rajput princely states that flourished in the region from the 8th to the 18th centuries. Enclosed within defensive walls are major urban centres, palaces, trading centres and other buildings including temples that often predate the fortifications within which developed an elaborate courtly culture that supported learning, music and the arts. Some of the urban centres enclosed in the fortifications have survived, as have many of the site’s temples and other sacred buildings. The forts use the natural defenses offered by the landscape: hills, deserts, rivers, and dense forests. They also feature extensive water harvesting structures, largely still in use today.

1406 Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area – 2014

This National Park in the western part of the Himalayan Mountains in the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh is characterized by high alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests. The 90,540ha property includes the upper mountain glacial and snow meltwater sources of several rivers, and the catchments of water supplies that are vital to millions of downstream users.
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The GHNPCA protects the monsoon-affected forests and alpine meadows of the Himalayan front ranges. It is part of the Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and includes twenty-five forest types along with a rich assemblage of fauna species, several of which are threatened. This gives the site outstanding significance for biodiversity conservation.

922 Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat – 2014

Rani-ki-Vav, on the banks of the Saraswati River, was initially built as a memorial to a king in the 11th century AD. Stepwells are a distinctive form of subterranean water resource and storage systems on the Indian subcontinent, and have been constructed since the 3rd millennium BC. They evolved over time from what was basically a pit in sandy soil towards elaborate multi-storey works of art and architecture. Rani-ki-Vav was built at the height of craftsmens’ ability in stepwell construction and the Maru-Gurjara architectural style, reflecting mastery of this complex technique and great beauty of detail and proportions. Designed as an inverted temple highlighting the sanctity of water, it is divided into seven levels of stairs with sculptural panels of high artistic quality; more than 500 principle sculptures and over a thousand minor ones combine religious, mythological and secular imagery, often referencing literary works. The fourth level is the deepest and leads into a rectangular tank 9.5m by 9.4m, at a depth of 23m. The well is located at the westernmost end of the property and consists of a shaft 10m in diameter and 30m deep.

1502 Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar – 2016

The Nalanda Mahavihara site is in the State of Bihar, in north-eastern India. It comprises the archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
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It includes stupas, shrines, viharas (residential and educational buildings) and important art works in stucco, stone and metal. Nalanda stands out as the most ancient university of the Indian Subcontinent. It engaged in the organized transmission of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years. The historical development of the site testifies to the development of Buddhism into a religion and the flourishing of monastic and educational traditions.

1513 Khangchendzonga National Park – 2016

Located at the heart of the Himalayan range in northern India Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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(Stateof Sikkim), the includes a unique diversity of plains, valleys, lakes, glaciers and spectacular, snow-capped mountains covered with ancient forests, including the world’s third highest peak, Mount Khangchendzonga. Mythological stories are associated with this mountain and with a great number of natural elements (caves, rivers, lakes, etc.) that are the object of worship by the indigenous people of Sikkim. The sacred meanings of these stories and practices have been integrated with Buddhist beliefs and constitute the basis for Sikkimese identity.

1321 The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement – 2016

Chosen from the work of Le Corbusier, the 17 sites comprising this transnational serial property are spread over seven countries and are a testimonial to the invention of a new architectural language that made a break with the past.
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They were built over a period of a half-century, in the course of what Le Corbusier described as “patient research”. The Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh (India), the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo (Japan), the House of Dr Curutchet in La Plata (Argentina) and the Unité d’habitation in Marseille (France) reflect the solutions that the Modern Movement sought to apply during the 20th century to the challenges of inventing new architectural techniques to respond to the needs of society. These masterpieces of creative genius also attest to the internationalization of architectural practice across the planet.

1551 Historic City of Ahmadabad – 2017

The walled city of Ahmadabad, founded by Sultan Ahmad Shah in the 15th century, on the eastern bank of the Sabarmati river, presents a rich architectural heritage from the sultanate period, notably the Bhadra citadel, the walls and gates of the Fort city and numerous mosques and tombs as well as important Hindu and Jain temples of later periods. The urban fabric is made up of densely-packed traditional houses (pols) in gated traditional streets (puras) with characteristic features such as bird feeders, public wells and religious institutions. The city continued to flourish as the capital of the State of Gujarat for six centuries, up to the present.

1480 Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai – 2018

Having become a global trading centre, the city of Mumbai implemented an ambitious urban planning project in the second half of the 19thcentury. It led to the construction of ensembles of public buildings bordering the Oval Maidan open space, first in the Victorian Neo-Gothic style and then, in the early 20thcentury, in the Art Deco idiom. The Victorian ensemble includes Indian elements suited to the climate, including balconies and verandas.
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The Art Deco edifices, with their cinemas and residential buildings, blend Indian design with Art Deco imagery, creating a unique style that has been described asIndo-Deco. These two ensembles bear testimony to the phases of modernization that Mumbai has undergone in the course of the 19thand 20thcenturies.

1605 Jaipur City, Rajasthan – 2019

The walled city of Jaipur, in India’s north-western state of Rajasthan was founded in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh II. Unlike other cities in the region located in hilly terrain, Jaipur was established on the plain and built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture. The streets feature continuous colonnaded businesses that intersect in the centre, creating large public squares called chaupars. Markets, shops, residences and temples built along the main streets have uniform facades. The city’s urban planning shows an exchange of ideas from ancient Hindu and early modern Mughal as well as Western cultures. The grid plan is a model that prevails in the West, while the organization of the different city sectors (chowkris) refers to traditional Hindu concepts. Designed to be a commercialcapital, miasto zachowało swoje lokalne tradycje handlowe, rzemieślnicze i spółdzielcze do dziś.

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