Lista światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO Federacja Rosyjska

World Heritage List UNESCO - Russian Federation

Tekst tłumaczony maszynowo. Dokładamy wszelkich starań, żeby jak najszybciej poprawić tłumaczenia maszynowe. W międzyczasie udostępniamy treści w formie roboczej.

540 Historyczne centrum Sankt Petersburga i powiązane grupy zabytków — 1990

„ Wenecja Północy”, z licznymi kanałami i ponad 400 mostami, jest wynikiem ogromnego projektu miejskiego rozpoczętego w 1703 roku pod Piotra Wielkiego. Później znane jako Leningrad (w byłym ZSRR), miasto jest ściśle związane z rewolucją październikową. Jego dziedzictwo architektoniczne pojednania bardzo różne style barokowe i czyste neoklasyczne, jak widać w Admiralicji, Pałacu Zimowym, Marmurowym Pałacu i Ermitażu.

544 Kizhi Pogost — 1990

Pogost Kizhi (tzn. obudowa Kizhi) znajduje się na jednej z wielu wysp jeziora Onega, w Karelii. Można tam zobaczyć dwa XVIII-wieczne drewniane kościoły i ośmioboczna wieża zegarowa, również w drewnie, zbudowana w 1862 roku. Te niezwykłe konstrukcje, w których stolarze stworzyli śmiałą wizjonerską architekturę, utrwalają starożytny model przestrzeni parafialnej i są w harmonii z otaczającym krajobrazem.

545 Kreml i Plac Czerwony, Moskwa — 1990

Nierozerwalnie związany ze wszystkimi najważniejszymi wydarzeniami historycznymi i politycznymi w Rosji od XIII wieku Kreml (zbudowany między XIV a XVII wiekiem przez wybitnych rosyjskich i zagranicznych architektów) był rezydencją Wielkiego Księcia, a także ośrodkiem religijnym. U podnóża murów, na Placu Czerwonym, Bazylika św. Wasyla jest jednym z najpiękniejszych rosyjskich zabytków prawosławnych.

632 Zespół Kulturalno-Historyczny Wysp Sołowieckich — 1992

Archipelag Sołowiecki składa się z sześciu wysp w zachodniej części Morza Białego, obejmujących około 300 km2. Są zamieszkane od V wieku przed naszą erą i znajdują się tam ważne ślady ludzkiej obecności aż do piątego tysiąclecia p.
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n.e. Archipelag jest miejscem żarliwego działania klasztornego od XV wieku, a istnieje kilka kościołów z XVI do XIX wieku.

604 Zabytki Nowogrodu i okolic — 1992

Położony na starożytnym szlaku handlowym między Azją Środkową a północną Europą, Nowogród był pierwszą stolicą Rosji w IX wieku. Otoczony kościołami i klasztorami był ośrodkiem duchowości prawosławnej oraz architektury rosyjskiej. Jego średniowieczne zabytki i XIV-wieczne freski Teofanesa greckiego (nauczyciel Andrieja Rublowa) ilustrują rozwój jego niezwykłej architektury i kreatywności kulturowej.

633 Białe zabytki Włodzimierza i Suzdala — 1992

Te dwa centra artystyczne w centralnej Rosji zajmują ważne miejsce w historii architektury kraju. Istnieje wiele wspaniałych budynków publicznych i religijnych z XII i XIII wieku, przede wszystkim arcydzieł Kolegiatu św. Demetriosa i katedry Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Marii Panny.

657 Zespół Architektoniczny Trójcy Sergiusza Ławry w Sergijewie Posadzie — 1993

Jest to dobry przykład działającego klasztoru prawosławnego, z cechami wojskowymi typowymi dla XV do XVIII wieku, okresu, w którym się rozwinął. Główny kościół Ławry, Katedra Wniebowzięcia NMP (echem katedry Kremla o tej samej nazwie), zawiera grobowiec Borysa Godunowa. Wśród skarbów Ławry znajduje się słynna ikona Trójcy, autorstwa Andrieja Rubla.

634 Kościół Wniebowstąpienia, Kolomenskoye — 1994

Kościół Wniebowstąpienia został zbudowany w 1532 roku na cesarskim majątku Kolomenskoye, pod Moskwą, aby uczcić narodziny księcia, który miał stać się carem Iwanem IV („Straszny”). Jeden z najwcześniejszych przykładów tradycyjnego drewnianego kościoła z dachem namiotowym na kamiennym i ceglanym podbudowie, miał duży wpływ na rozwój rosyjskiej architektury kościelnej.
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719 Dziewicze lasy Komi — 1995

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theUrals, as well as one of the most extensive areas of virgin boreal forest remaining in Europe. This vast area of conifers, aspens, birches, peat bogs, rivers and natural lakes has been monitored and studied for over 50 years. It provides valuable evidence of the natural processes affecting biodiversity in the taiga.

754 Lake Baikal – 1996

Situated in south-east Siberia, the 3.15-million-ha is the oldest (25 million years) and deepest (1,700 m) lake in the world. It contains 20% of the world’s total unfrozen freshwater reserve. Known as the ‘Galapagos of Russia’, its age and isolation have produced one of the world’s richest and most unusual freshwater faunas, which is of exceptional value to evolutionary science.

765 Volcanoes of Kamchatka – 1996

This is one of the most outstanding volcanic regions in the world, with a high density of active volcanoes, a variety of types, and a wide range of related features. The six sites included in the serial designation group together the majority of volcanic features of the Kamchatka peninsula. The interplay of active volcanoes and glaciers forms a dynamic landscape of great beauty. The sites contain great species diversity, including the world’s largest known variety of salmonoid fish and exceptional concentrations of sea otter, brown bear and Stellar’s sea eagle.
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768 Golden Mountains of Altai – 1998

The Altai mountains in southern Siberia form the major mountain range in the western Siberia biogeographic region and provide the source of its greatest rivers – the Ob and the Irtysh. Three separate areas are inscribed: Altaisky Zapovednik and a buffer zone around Lake Teletskoye; Katunsky Zapovednik and a buffer zone around Mount Belukha; and the Ukok Quiet Zone on the Ukok plateau. The total area covers 1,611,457 ha. The region represents the most complete sequence of altitudinal vegetation zones in central Siberia, from steppe, forest-steppe, mixed forest, subalpine vegetation to alpine vegetation. The site is also an important habitat for endangered animal species such as the snow leopard.

900 Western Caucasus – 1999

The , extending over 275,000 ha of the extreme western end of the Caucasus mountains and located 50 km north-east of the Black Sea, is one of the few large mountain areas of Europe that has not experienced significant human impact. Its subalpine and alpine pastures have only been grazed by wild animals, and its extensive tracts of undisturbed mountain forests, extending from the lowlands to the subalpine zone, are unique in Europe. The site has a great diversity of ecosystems, with important endemic plants and wildlife, and is the place of origin and reintroduction of the mountain subspecies of the European bison.

994 Curonian Spit – 2000

Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat the erosion of the Spit, dramatically illustrated by continuing stabilisation and reforestation projects.
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982 Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery – 2000

The Ferapontov Monastery, in the Vologda region in northern Russia, is an exceptionally well-preserved and complete example of a Russian Orthodox monastic complex of the 15th-17th centuries, a period of great significance in the development of the unified Russian state and its culture. The architecture of the monastery is outstanding in its inventiveness and purity. The interior is graced by the magnificent wall paintings of Dionisy, the greatest Russian artist of the end of the 15th century.

980 Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin – 2000

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theKazan Kremlin dates from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and became the Christian See of the Volga Land. The only surviving Tatar fortress in Russia and an important place of pilgrimage, the Kazan Kremlin consists of an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to 19th centuries, integrating remains of earlier structures of the 10th to 16th centuries.

766 Central Sikhote-Alin – 2001

The Sikhote-Alin mountain range contains one of the richest and most unusual temperate forests of the world. In this mixed zone between taiga and subtropics, southern species such as the tiger and Himalayan bear cohabit with northern species such as the brown bear and lynx.
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After its extension in 2018, the property includes the Bikin River Valley, located about 100 km to the north of the existing site. It encompasses the South-Okhotsk dark coniferous forests and the East-Asian coniferous broadleaf forests. The fauna includes species of the taiga alongside southern Manchurian species. It includes notable mammals such as the Amur Tiger, Siberian Musk Deer, Wolverine and Sable.

1070 Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent – 2003

The were part of the northern lines of the Sasanian Persian Empire, which extended east and west of the Caspian Sea. The fortification was built in stone. It consisted of two parallel walls that formed a barrier from the seashore up to the mountain. The town of Derbent was built between these two walls, and has retained part of its medieval fabric. The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century.

769 Uvs Nuur Basin – 2003

The (1,068,853 ha), is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, important for migrating birds, waterfowl and seabirds. The site is made up of twelve protected areas representing the major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the globally endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep (argali) and the Asiatic ibex.

1097 Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent – 2004

The Novodevichy Convent, in south-western Moscow, built in the 16th and 17th centuries in the so-called Moscow Baroque style, was part of a chain of monastic ensembles that were integrated into the defence system of the city.
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The convent was directly associated with the political, cultural and religious history of Russia, and closely linked to the Moscow Kremlin. It was used by women of the Tsar’s family and the aristocracy. Members of the Tsar’s family and entourage were also buried in its cemetery. The convent provides an example of the highest accomplishments of Russian architecture with rich interiors and an important collection of paintings and artefacts.

1023 Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve – 2004

Located well above the Arctic Circle, the site includes the mountainous Wrangel Island (7,608 km2), Herald Island (11 km2) and surrounding waters. Wrangel was not glaciated during the Quaternary Ice Age, resulting in exceptionally high levels of biodiversity for this region. The island boasts the world’s largest population of Pacific walrus and the highest density of ancestral polar bear dens. It is a major feeding ground for the grey whale migrating from Mexico and the northernmost nesting ground for 100 migratory bird species, many endangered. Currently, 417 species and subspecies of vascular plants have been identified on the island, double that of any other Arctic tundra territory of comparable size and more than any other Arctic island. Some species are derivative of widespread continental forms, others are the result of recent Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error: `POST https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com` resulted in a `429 Too Many Requests` response:
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hybridization,and 23 are endemic.

1170 Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl – 2005

Situated at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl Rivers some 250 km north-east of Moscow, the historic city of Yaroslavl developed into a major commercial centre from the 11th century.
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It is renowned for its numerous 17th-century churches and is an outstanding example of the urban planning reform Empress Catherine the Great ordered for the whole of Russia in 1763. While keeping some of its significant historic structures, the town was renovated in the neoclassical style on a radial urban master plan. It has also kept elements from the 16th century in the Spassky Monastery, one of the oldest in the Upper Volga region, built on the site of a pagan temple in the late 12th century but reconstructed over time.

1187 Struve Geodetic Arc – 2005

The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks.

1234 Putorana Plateau – 2010

This site coincides with the area of the Putoransky State Nature Reserve, and is located in the central part of the in northern Central Siberia. It is situated about 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The part of the plateau inscribed on the World Heritage List harbours a complete set of subarctic and arctic ecosystems in an isolated mountain range, including pristine taiga, forest tundra, tundra and arctic desert systems, as well as untouched cold-water lake and river systems.
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A major reindeer migration route crosses the property, which represents an exceptional, large-scale and increasingly rare natural phenomenon.

1299 Lena Pillars Nature Park – 2012

is marked by spectacular rock pillars that reach a height of approximately 100m along the banks of the Lena River in the central part of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). They were produced by the region’s extreme continental climate with an annual temperature range of almost 100 degrees Celsius (from –60°C in winter to +40°C in summer). The pillars form rocky buttresses isolated from each other by deep and steep gullies developed by frost shattering directed along intervening joints. Penetration of water from the surface has facilitated cryogenic processes (freeze-thaw action), which have widened gullies between pillars leading to their isolation. Fluvial processes are also critical to the pillars. The site also contains a wealth of Cambrian fossil remains of numerous species, some of them unique.

981 Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex – 2014

This property lies on the shores of the Volga River, south of its confluence with the River Kama, and south of the capital of Tatarstan, Kazan. It contains evidence of the medieval city of Bolgar, an early settlement of the civilization of Volga-Bolgars, which existed between the 7th and 15th centuries AD, and was the first capital of the Golden Horde in the 13th century. Bolgar represents the historical cultural exchanges and transformations of Eurasia over several centuries that played a pivotal role in the formation of civilizations, customs and cultural traditions. The property provides Error executing “TranslateText” on “https://translate.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com”; AWS HTTP error: Client error:
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remarkableevidence of historic continuity and cultural diversity. It is a symbolic reminder of the acceptance of Islam by the Volga-Bolgars in AD 922 and remains a sacred pilgrimage destination to the Tatar Muslims.

1525 Assumption Cathedral and Monastery of the town-island of Sviyazhsk – 2017

The Assumption Cathedral is located in the town-island of Sviyazhsk and is part of the monastery of the same name. Situated at the confluence of the Volga, the Sviyaga and the Shchuka rivers, at the crossroads of the Silk and Volga routes, Sviyazhsk was founded by Ivan the Terrible in 1551. It was from this outpost that he initiated the conquest of the Kazan Khanate. The Assumption Monastery illustrates in its location and architectural composition the political and missionary programme developed by Tsar Ivan IV to extend the Moscow state. The cathedral’s frescoes are among the rarest examples of Eastern Orthodox mural paintings.

1448 Landscapes of Dauria – 2017

Shared between Mongolia and the Russian Federation, this site is an outstanding example of the Daurian Steppe eco-region, which extends from eastern Mongolia into Russian Siberia and northeastern China. Cyclical climate changes, with distinct dry and wet periods lead to a wide diversity of species and ecosystems of global significance. The different types of steppe ecosystems represented, such as grassland and forest, as well as lakes and wetlands serve as habitats for rare species of fauna, such as the White-naped crane, Great Bustard, Relict Gull and Swan goose, as well as millions of vulnerable, endangered or threatened migratory birds.
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It is also a critical site on the transboundary migration path for the Mongolian gazelle.

1523 Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture – 2019

This group of monuments is located in the historic city of Pskov, on the banks of the Velikaya River in the northwest of Russia. Characteristics of these buildings, produced by the Pskov School of Architecture, include cubic volumes, domes, porches and belfries, with the oldest elements dating back to the 12thcentury. Churches and cathedrals are integrated into the natural environment through gardens, perimeter walls and fences. Inspired by the Byzantine and Novgorod traditions, the Pskov School of Architecture reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, and was one of the foremost schools in the country. It informed the evolution of Russian architecture over five centuries.

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