Plant cultivation – rice

rice


Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233

Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233

Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233

Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233

Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233

Rice is the second most important cereal product after wheat. It is divided into wet (requires water all the time except harvest) and dry (does not need so much water). In addition, there are several edible species, e.g. red, black, white. Rice is eaten little processed because too intensive processing causes losses of vitamins and minerals. Straw is used for feed production and in the paper industry.

Ears of rice
Ears of rice

Soil

Rice grows best in fertile, low-draining, clayey soil that holds water. River muds best meet these conditions. Dry rice is less demanding and can grow in highlands and mountains up to 2000 m a.s.l. Wet rice is most often grown on terraced plots using overflow irrigation. Initially, the seeds germinate on ordinary beds, after 1-2 months they are transplanted into proper fields. The water mirror is about 5-10 cm high.

Climatic conditions and occurrence

Rice is mainly found in monsoon and tropical climates. Requires a minimum of 60 days with a temperature above 20 degrees Celsius (wet) or 90 days minimum 18 degrees (dry). The exact temperature range depends on the species, the minimum is 10-15 degrees.
The harvest is usually twice a year, three times a year or three times every two years.

The most and largest rice crops are:

  • in – Padan Plain, Guadalquivir River Valley (Spain)
  • in – the Ganges Plain (eastern and central part), Chinese Plain, Sichuan Basin, Indus Plain, Luzon, Honshu, Java, Nanling Mountains, deltas and valleys of the Yangtze River, of the Mekong, of Irawadi, of Menam
  • in North America – the Gulf Plain (western part), Arkansas
  • in – the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil
  • in – Nile and Niger delta, Madagascar
  • in Australia – the Murray River Valley

The overwhelming majority (90%) of the world's collections come from from the monsoon regions. This is due to a large amount of relatively regular rainfall, large population (both as workforce and consumers) and centuries-old tradition.

Rice field
Rice field

Yields

The average world yield in 2013 was 44.9 dt / ha, over 13 years it increased by 6 dt / ha. Nobody will be surprised by the fact that Asian countries enjoy the greatest productivity, although it is worth remembering the United States in second place. Over the past 13 years, the order given has changed slightly.

The highest yields per hectare in 2013:

  1. Egypt – 95.3 dt / ha
  2. USA – 86.2 dt / ha
  3. South Korea – 67.6 dt / ha
  4. Japan – 67.3 dt / ha
  5. China – 67.2 dt / ha
  6. Vietnam – 55.7 dt / ha
  7. Indonesia – 51.5 dt / ha
  8. Brazil – 50.1 dt / ha
  9. Bangladesh – 43.8 dt / ha
  10. Sri Lanka – 38.9 dt / ha

Producers

In 2013, a total of 740.9 million tons of rice were produced, which is 24.9 million tons more than wheat. In comparison with 2000, rice harvest was by 142 thousand tons larger. And like in the case of the crop ranking, Asian countries are in the lead. Although two main differences can be seen – South Korea, Egypt and the United States, despite high yields, do not produce as much grain, while Burma, the Philippines and Thailand have weaker crops per hectare, but they produce more.

The largest share in rice production had:

  1. China – 203 million tons
  2. India – 159 million tons
  3. Indonesia – 71 million tonnes
  4. Bangladesh – 51 million tons
  5. Vietnam – 44 million tons
  6. Thailand – 36 million tons
  7. Myanmar / Burma – 28.7 million tonnes
  8. Philippines – 18 million tons
  9. Brazil – 11.7 million tons
  10. Japan – 10.7 million tons

Exporters (2012)

  1. India – 10.47 million tonnes
  2. Vietnam – 8.02 million tonnes
  3. Thailand – 6.70 million tons
  4. Pakistan – 3.42 million tons
  5. USA – 3.25 million tons
  6. Brazil – 1.10 million tonnes
  7. Uruguay – 1.03 million tonnes
  8. Italy – 0.74 million tonnes
  9. Argentina – 0.61 million tonnes
  10. Myanmar / Burma – 0.46 million tonnes

The main exporters are usually the largest producers. The exceptions are China (import) and the United States and .

Importers (2012)

  1. China – 2.33 million tons
  2. Nigeria – 2.29 million tons
  3. Indonesia – 1.80 million tons
  4. Ivory Coast – 1.68 million tons
  5. Iraq – 1.38 million tons
  6. South -1.29 million tonnes
  7. Saudi Arabia – 1.21 million tons
  8. Senegal – 1.04 million tons
  9. Iran – 1.03 million tonnes
  10. Philippines – 1.01 million tonnes

China is not only a leading rice producer in the world but also an importer – after all, it is one of the most populous countries in the world. In addition, rice is bought by African and Arab countries.

Source of data for 2013:
Rocznik statystyczny GUS 2015

5/5 - (1 vote)

This post is also available in: polski


Warning: file_exists(): open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/home/augxdkk/www/geographicforall.pl/wp-content/uploads/geoip/GeoLite2-Country.mmdb) is not within the allowed path(s): (/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/:/home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/.tmp/:/demonek/www/public/bledy.demonek.com/:/usr/local/lsws/share/autoindex:/usr/local/php/:/dev/urandom:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/pear/:/opt/alt/php82/usr/share/php:/opt/alt/php82/) in /home/klient.dhosting.pl/biurorock/geographicforall.com/public_html/wp-content/plugins/geoip-detect/data-sources/manual.php on line 233
>

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.