652 Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park – 1999

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This park features a spectacular limestone karst landscape with an underground river. One of the river's distinguishing features is that it emerges directly into the sea, and its lower portion is subject to tidal influences. The area also represents a significant habitat for biodiversity conservation. The site contains a full ‘mountain-to-sea' ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in .

Brief synthesis

encompasses one of the world's most impressive cave systems, featuring spectacular limestone karst landscapes, pristine natural beauty, and intact old-growth forests and distinctive wildlife. It is located in the south-western part of the Philippine Archipelago on the mid western coast of Palawan, approximately 76 km northwest of Puerto Princesa and 360 km southwest of Manila.

The property, comprising an area of approximately 22,202 ha, contains an 8.2km long underground river. The highlight of this subterranean river system is that it flows directly into the sea, with its brackish lower half subjected to tidal influence, distinguishing it as a significant natural global phenomenon. The river's cavern presents remarkable, eye catching rock formations. The property contains a full mountain-to-sea ecosystem which provides significant habitat for biodiversity conservation and protects the most intact and noteworthy forests within the Palawan biogeographic province. Holding the distinction of being the first national park devolved and successfully managed by a local government unit, the park's effective management system is a symbol of commitment by the Filipino people to the protection and conservation of their natural heritage.

Criterion (vii):

The features a spectacular limestone or karst landscape. It contains an underground river that flows directly to the sea. The lower half of the river is brackish and subject to ocean tide. The associated tidal influence on the river makes this a significant natural phenomenon. The river's cavern exhibits dramatic speleothems and several large chambers of as much as 120m wide and 60m high. Its accessibility and navigability up to 4.5km inland allows it to be experienced by the general public, who can view the magnificent rock formations on a river cruise unequalled by any other similar experience elsewhere in the world.

Criterion (x):

The property contains globally significant habitat for biodiversity conservation. It includes a full mountain-to-sea ecosystem, protecting the most significant forest area within the Palawan Biogeographic Province. There are eight intact forest formations: forest on ultramafic soil, forest on limestone soil, montane forest, freshwater swamp forest, lowland evergreen tropical rainforest, riverine forest, beach forest, and mangrove forest, included in the property. It contains outstanding biodiversity with the Palawan Moist Forest recognized by the WWF's Global Report as containing the richest tree flora, with high levels of regional and local endemism and as being the largest and most valuable limestone forest in .


The property, including the karst mountain landscapes and the underground river, is in excellent condition. Integrity of the property is also expressed in the complete “mountain-to-the-sea” ecosystem that protects one of the most significant forests in Asia. The uniqueness of the mangrove forests in the Bay along with the flora and fauna they harbour, and the bioecological connection with the caves and surrounding forest is protected within the core area of the property ensuring the local key inter-related and inter-dependant elements of their natural relationships are protected.

The , comprising 22,202 ha and covering three barangays, encompasses the natural values of the property and is of adequate size to protect all the various landforms and the estuarine ecosystem that conveys the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The boundaries of the property cover the entire watershed of the underground river, thus protecting water quality and quantity and ensuring the long-term viability of the outstanding natural values contained within the property. The biodiversity values of the property are highlighted in Barangay Marufinas which is included in the property along with the adjacent barangays which also contain significant biodiversity values and habitats important to their integrity. Management guidelines are needed to address threats to the property including pollutants impacting on water quality in the underground river. Threats to the property are mainly from adverse activities in adjacent catchment areas, primarily forest clearing and agricultural activities. Tourism activities require careful planning and management to ensure the natural values are not impacted.

Protection and management requirements

Effective site protection is provided at a local rather than a national level through agreements that place legal ownership with the City Government of Puerto Princesa. This arrangement for local ownership ensures the property's national values are maintained even after changes in local management perspectives. The property is also covered by the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) Act of 1992 which ensures legal protection and conservation of protected areas in the Philippines. It decrees that all management decisions for the property are made in consultation with the Protected Areas Management Board (PAMB). Multilateral agreement provisions between national government agencies and local stakeholders have been considered throughout the planning and management of the site to ensure protection and conservation of its natural values.

Management of the park is conducted within the boundary as two zones: a core comprising the Park and a surrounding buffer. The Management Plan for the park sets out relevant objectives and programs and provides zoning within the park's boundaries wherein different management regimes apply. Management of the property is very effective, reflecting strong local political support and enabling the provision of reasonable funding and staffing. Its key directive is to conserve the underground river and the forest ecosystem in their most natural state possible.

Management of the buffer is covered by guidelines that seek to regulate activities that may impact on the property. They also provide for the establishment of sustainable protective measures for agricultural lands within the buffer. Thus, not only conserving the natural resources of the area, but also improving the quality of life of its residents. However, more resources are required for the full implementation of the management plan and guidelines.

Tourism, identified as a potential threat, adversely impacting the natural values of the property, is being addressed through tourism management objectives set out in the Management Plan. But as tourist visits are increasing, more staff training in park planning and management is required to ensure effective management of tourism activities. The property's tourism program aims to enhance visitor's experience with nature while protecting the natural values. The threats posed by uncontrolled access from outside developments are being addressed through the implementation of a limit of 600 visitors per day. Wildlife population surveys are conducted annually to monitor the effects of tourism on wildlife. 

Threats from activities such as forest clearing and agriculture also need to be addressed in the Management Plan. Water quality in the underground river, invariably affected by upstream activities in the catchment area, as well as concerns about pollution inputs to the river, need to be addressed in the management guidelines. Regular awareness campaigns at the level of the barangays are needed to ensure natural values of the property are conserved within their jurisdictions and the establishment of an integrated land use plan is required to ensure long term conservation of the natural values of the property.

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